DNA is the name of a molecule that contains all the genetic code necessary for the growth, survival and reproduction of an organism. How well do we really know this important structure, one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century? Here is the list of things you may not know about DNA.
18 things you may not know about DNA
DNA is found in all living organisms and stands for “deoxyribonucleic acid.”
We’ve heard that the DNA test reveals the relationship between the child and its potential parent. However, DNA testing is also used to determine the authenticity and value of products such as caviar.
DNA is also used in nature studies to identify endangered animals.
DNA is examined in 13 different features in forensic medicine. The probability of two different people having the same DNA profile under these 13 criteria is part per one billionth.
DNA information of a human can be obtained from many different samples. Blood, saliva, urine, sperm are a few of them.
When a person’s DNA structure is examined, it can be understood which diseases he/she is at risk. For example, DNA mutation poses a risk for many diseases, including breast cancer.
DNA is a molecule that is affected by the living environment. Environmental factors can alter genes. This explains why some people have darker skin or more hair.
The term “mutation”, which we frequently see in sci-fi works, is the name given to changes in gene sequence.
Ultraviolet rays coming from the sun and drug use are the most important factors that can cause mutations in genes.
If all the DNA molecules in our bodies were attached end-to-end, it would have gone back to the Sun 600 times.
If we had opened the DNA helix in all our cells and added them end-to-end, they could have gone to the Moon 6000 times.
USA and many other countries including the UK have databases containing the DNA information of convicted criminals.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a molecule found in mitochondria that is transmitted only to the child from the mother. The reason for this is that the egg cells have mitochondria and the absence of sperm cells.
Except for the red blood cells, every cell in our body has DNA.
99% of the DNA structure of every human being is the same. 99.5% of the DNA structure of a father / mother and child is the same.
This complex structure, which contains the knowledge of the whole organism, consists essentially of only four components. These are nucleotides called adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine.
The DNA of every human being is completely unique. With one exception: the DNA of identical twins is exactly the same.
Contrary to what is known, James Watson and Francis Crick did not discover DNA. The real name behind this discovery was the Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher, who came across this molecule in the nucleus of white blood cells in 1869.